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WHERE Clause in PostgreSQL

WHERE clause used into PostgreSQL statement to specify/apply any condition while retrieving, updating or deleting data from a table.

Syntax: PostgreSQL statement using WHERE clause


SELECT <Column Name1>,<Column Name2>...
FROM table_name
WHERE <condition>;


The following table illustrates the standard comparison operators.
Operator             Description
=                             Equal
>                             Greater than
<                             Less than
>=                           Greater than or equal
<=                           Less than or equal
<> or !=                                Not equal
AND                       Logical operator AND
OR                          Logical operator OR

PostgreSQL WHERE clause example

Suppose we have a table "Employee" so first we create a table using the following query.

CREATE TABLE public."Employee"
(
    "Id" bigserial NOT NULL,
    "FName" text COLLATE pg_catalog."default",
    "LName" text COLLATE pg_catalog."default",
    "UserName" text COLLATE pg_catalog."default",
    "Password" text COLLATE pg_catalog."default",
    "Contact" text COLLATE pg_catalog."default",
    "Salary" numeric NOT NULL DEFAULT 0.0,
    CONSTRAINT "PK_Test" PRIMARY KEY ("Id")
)



Insert some records on above table ("Employee")


INSERT INTO public."Employee"(
                "FName", "LName", "UserName", "Password", "Contact", "Salary")
                VALUES ('Name1','last1', 'name1@gmail.com', 'name@0123', '9088877787', '20000');

INSERT INTO public."Employee"(
                "FName", "LName", "UserName", "Password", "Contact", "Salary")
                VALUES ('Name2','last2', 'name2@gmail.com', 'name@0123', '9288877787', '30000');
               
INSERT INTO public."Employee"(
                "FName", "LName", "UserName", "Password", "Contact", "Salary")
                VALUES ('Name3','last3', 'name3@gmail.com', 'name@0123', '9388877787', '40000');

Illustrates of WHERE clause

1- Used WHERE clause when selecting a particular record(s) Query: If you want to select the user which UserName and Password are name1@gmail.com and name@0123

SELECT "Id", "FName", "LName", "UserName", "Password", "Contact", "Salary"
                FROM public."Employee" WHERE "UserName"='name1@gmail.com' AND "Password"='name@0123'


2- Used WHERE clause when updating particular record: Suppose you want to update Salary of employee Name2 then use the below statement

UPDATE public."Employee"
                SET "Salary"=50000
                WHERE "UserName"='name2@gmail.com' AND "Password"='name@0123'


3- Used WHERE clause when deleting a particular record(s): Suppose you want to delete 3rd-row record (I am deleting record using Id)

DELETE FROM public."Employee"
                WHERE "Id" = 3;