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Interview Questions and answers - SQL Server Day 7

Question: What are ACID properties in SQL Server?

Answer: The ACID rules of a transaction in any database ensure the reliability of data in all transactions in the database.

Atomicity
Atomicity shows the ability of the database to assure that either all tasks of a transaction are performed or none of them.

Consistency
Consistency assures that database remains consistent state before the transaction and after the transaction is over.

Isolation
Isolation assures that other operation can't be performed in an intermediate state during a transaction. As a result, transactions that run concurrently appear to be serialized.

Durability
Durability is responsible to notify the transaction is successful; the transaction will persist, not undone. It will survive system failure and the database system has checked the integrity constraints and no need to abort the transaction.
For example, click here 

Question: What is a TRANSACTION in SQL Server?

Answer: Transaction is the collection of T-SQL statements which executes in a single unit. A transaction begins with a specific T-SQL statement and ends when all T-SQL statements execute successfully. If any statements fail then the transaction fails. A transaction has only two types of results success or failure.
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Question: What are COMMIT and ROLLBACK in SQL Server?

Answer: COMMIT statement use to the committed transaction to save changes in the database successfully.
ROLLBACK statement use to stop the current transaction and un-done the changes made by the transaction.
For more details click here 

Question: What is a WITH(NOLOCK) in SQL Server?

Answer: WITH(NOLOCK) used in the SELECT statement to give the priority to select statement. WITH(NOLOCK) unlock the table for a SELECT statement to stop another process.
Example
SELECT * FROM TBL WITH(NOLOCK)

Question: GO command in SQL server?

Answer: GO command indicates the end the SQL statements it is used when there are multiple statements to be executed but sent as a batch.

Question: What is the difference between UNION and UNION ALL in SQL Server?

Answer: UNION operator is used to combining multiple results set into one result set but remove any duplicate rows. Basically, UNION used to performing a DISTINCT operation across all columns in the result set. UNION operator has the extra overhead of removing duplicate rows and sorting result.


UNION ALL operator use to combine multiple results set into one result set but it does not remove any duplicate result. Actually, this is not removed duplicate rows so it is faster than the UNION operator, if you want to combine multiple results and without duplicate records then use UNION. For more details click here 

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{ $add: [ <expression1>, <expression2>, ... ] }

Note:  If one of the argument is date $add operator treats to other arguments as milliseconds to add to the date.
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Note: As mentioned in above note we have to convert days in millisecond because $add operator treat to other arg…

What is difference between UNION and UNION ALL in SQL Server

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Following some rules for using UNION/UNION ALL operator
1.The number of the column should be the same in the query's when you want to combine them. 2.The column should be of the same data type. 3.ORDER BY clause can be applied to the overall result set not within each result set.
4.Column name of …

Remove special character from string in MongoDB

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Example: Suppose we have a collection “EduSurvey “where we are collecting information from institutions.

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Did you notice Information fields contains some special character so we…